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I want to thank everyone who has encourage us to continue writing and sharing our research through these newsletters. This is our 12th issue and one that we are very proud to present to you. To have articles submitted by Mr. Tom Frakes and Merrill Cohen is a true gift. These two individuals are pioneers in the field of reef keeping. I hope you enjoy their articles and share them with people who may not be on the internet as of yet.
Through our twelve posted newsletters we have shared all of the ongoing research that the Foundation has generated. We have share pictures as well as information on how to maintain your systems in healthy conditions. We have explained how to make your own rock, how to propagate corals, make your very own gulg gulg box and much much more. We have expanded our membership program thanks to all of you who have contributed to this through your donations. We even had our very first gift of stock contributed to our non-profit organization. Thanks to all of these gifts we have been able to promote an appreciation for and understanding of the Worlds coral reefs. We have had the privilege of putting together seminars with speakers like Mike Paletta, Dana Riddle and Steve Tyree.
The last weekend in March 1998 we are blessed yet again to have two World Class speakers come to Boise Idaho to share their knowledge and compassion for the coral reefs. We have confirmed that Mr. Albert Theil and Mr. Jerry Hislinga will be our guest speakers for this Seminar. To have these two men in the same room is a privilege all on its own let alone the knowledge that have to offer will touch you deeply. To be able to ask questions and to learn from their experiences is an opportunity that should not be overlooked.
We have been reviewed as well as written our own articles in some of the leading marine magazines. If you havenžt already purchased the Dec. issue of FAMA it has an article written by GARF sharing all methods for coral propagation.
The Foundations wetlands has inspired several individuals as well as leading golf course to use natural algae control with plants and to use less chemicals that end up in our rivers, then into the oceans that we are trying so hard to protect. By leading the way and setting examples on how wetlands can purify water naturally it encourages more and more projects to set the same standards for themselves. In the end we will leave this World a better place for future generations. It is womderful to know that we can do World Class projects that enhance wildlife and clean out pollutants from our very own rivers.
GARF has just started to promote the kidsreef.com site. This is dedicated to young children as well as adults. We want to encourage of all you to share your stories and allow us to reach children of all ages through this site.
Many of you have become our customers. Some through janitor orders, grunge, membership, corals, magic reef dust, rock, and some of you have tired them all. Some of you have talked with Jody, Glen, LeRoy or myself. We want you to extend a hearty welcome to the newest member of our team. His name is Doug Brooks and he is our Office Manager.
It is because of so many orders, so many e-mails and so many requests we needed to increase our staff to meet your needs. I hope you will find this a positive step and have your phone call answered on one of the first three rings:)
Anyone who has ordered their janitors from us may want to reorder now. These guys do a great job and need to be replenished from time to time. Please donžt let your system go until it becomes a problem it is best to stay ahead of it. If you call our office and mention this article we will inform you about our JANITOR SPECIAL!! I would like to note that we have had to postpone most shipments until after Christmas to make sure that the critters arrive in good health. We will begin shipments right after Christmas so now is a good time to place that order.
I am very excited to report that by the next issue I will have a deeper understanding of corals being studied for medical purposes. Our goal will be to list these animals and focus on the propagation of these animals so that the Universities will be able to do the same. It is amazing how many of these animals are being researched for medical purposes.
Thank You all for such a wonderful year.
This is the 12th issue of our newsletter and the response has been better than we could have hoped for. Many people are starting coral farms and more of you are using this information to propagate the invertebrates that are growing in your reef aquariums. During the coming year- THE INTERNATIONAL YEAR OF THE OCEAN - we will bring you more information about this project.
We hope that many of you will take the time to share e-mails with us about your projects. Information is like seeds, the more you plant the better the harvest. We receive so many e-mails with valuable tips from people all over the world that this project has been increased, and we will soon have an e-mail list that you can join. If you have any data that you are willing to share, please send it to us as soon possible. We are very interested in anything you might want us to write about so we can keep the data coming your way.
Remember that you can SAVE A REEF BY GROWING YOUR OWN.
Have fun and try to find a way to help a young person get started in this wonderful hobby. This is a good time to introduce you all to our new web site kidsreef.com our site for education. We will have many projects that teachers can print and use in their class rooms. This site will be the place on the net for beginners of all ages to find out how to start many types of aquariums.
We are very excited to have both Jerry Heslinga and Albert Theil coming to our first 1998 coral farming school in late March. Jerry has probably raised more giant clams than anyone in this field. Albert will be showing us all how to propagate large polyp stony corals. This will be a hands on weekend , and we are looking forward to an exciting time.
THANK YOU ALL FOR THE GREAT YEAR!!
A teaspoon of mud from an Australian mangrove stand contains more than 10 billion bacteria. These densities are among the highest to be found in marine mud anywhere in the world and are an indication of the immensely high productivity of this coastal forest habitat. We have added new mud collections from two parts of Mexico, Hawaii, and Florida. Each of these collections have added to the population of filter organisms in our systems.
MANGROVES A NATURAL MODELThe Mangrove ecosystem traps and cycles various organic materials, chemical elements, and important nutrients. Dissolved substances are used by plankton, bacteria,and fungi. This material, in nature, is deposited over the seabed. Here bacteria densities are almost as high as those in the mangrove mud and they do much the same job, breaking down the litter to be consumed by botom-living fauna.
Mangrove roots act not only as support and physical traps but provide attachment surfaces for various marine organisms. Sponges are very common in these areas. Many of these attached organisms filter water through their bodies and, in turn, trap and cycle nutrients.
Roots perform a number of functions for a plant. They support it and they obtain essential nutrients and oxygen.In unstable, sometimes semi-fluid, soil an extensive root system is necessary simply to keep the trees upright. As a result, most mangroves have more living matter below the ground than above it. Mangroves do not seem to grow deep tap roots, probably because of the poor oxygen supply below the surface. There are three types of roots with different functions. Radiating cable roots punctuated by descending anchor roots, provide support. From this framework sprout numerous little nutritive roots which feed on the rich soil just below the surface. The third type of roots collects the oxygen.
The most readily distinguishable feature of the white mangrove is the presences of numerous spongy pneumatophores(peg roots) which spread out around the base of the tree. Peg roots grow vertically through the soil surface to allow the mangrove to breathe.
Generally, flowering occurs during mid to late summer. White mangrove has pale green roughly egg-shaped fruits, approx 3 cm long and 2 cm wide which consist of a thin, hairy seed coat enclosing 2 closely folded seed leaves. The seeds germinate on the tree.
The fruits and/or seedlings of all mangrove plants can float, which is, of course, an excellent dispersal mechanism for plants which live in water.
The production of live seedlings (known as vivipary) is very rare in plants other than mangroves and a few seagrass species and the reason for it is unclear. It is possible that the well-developed seedling has a greater chance of surviving, once it has taken root, in a situation where it is likely to be battered by water-bourne objects.
This Red Mangrove is growning many complex roots in the filter substrate. The water quality is higher than when Tim used large skimmers. The sps coral growth is very good. The polyp extention is better than before.
FUTURE RESEARCHNumerous medicines are derived from mangroves. Skin disorders and sores, including leprosy, may be treated with ashes or bark infusions of certain species. Headaches, rheumatism, snakebites, boils, ulcers, diarrhoea, haemorrhages...and many more conditions are traditionally treated with mangrove plants.
We have been testing Mangroves in our reef aquarium filters for two year. These Magroves are growing in large barnacle shells that I purchased at a local pet shop. This group of plants is used to filter 8 - 30 gallon reef aquariums. This has been the only filter - no skimmer - in these 8 aquariums for the past year. The water quality is very high. I am going to make some containers like this from AragocreteTM with thin walls and 1/4 inch holes to grow more Mangroves. All of the nutrient needed to grow these 24 inch trees was removed from the water column.
The White Mangroves have many more hair roots than the Red Mangroves. We are certain that these plants can be grown much shorter than the Red ones. As you can see from the pictures the White Mangroves are growing very fast. These two pictures were taken only 5 day apart. I am making six more Mud filters next week - that will give us 24 filters to work with during the next two years. We have been getting more new mud each week and the only mud that has not worked very well is the Mangrove mud from Florida. I am removing it slowly so I can save the worms that came with it.
The MUD filters are doing very well in the lab. I was impressed at how much the algae grew in some of them while we were gone mud collecting in Mexico last month. We are testing many new species that have been coming in from around the world. The best bulbs that we have found for the algae and Mangroves are 2 - G.E. Aquarim and Plant bulbs from the hardware store. I am changing the other mud filters to the type of bulb this month.
THIS IS THE NEW SPROUT AS IT STARTS TO GROW. WE ARE CERTAIN THAT THERE ARE MANY SPECIES OF PLANTS AND ALGAE THAT WILL BE GOOD FOR THESE MUD FILTERS.
OUR FIRST MUD FILTER SYSTEM
THIS ARTICLE IS CONTINUED ON PAGE #2 DECEMBER ISSUE PAGE 2
SALLY JO'S DECEMBER REEF UPDATE
I must say that each month when it comes time to write my article I have so much to share I struggle to find a good place to start. In reef keeping you will find many conflicting ideas, and methods. You will find people who are kind and willing to share all of their insight. You will find people who know what they are talking about and some who are one tank experts. I have to confess that the most important thing that you develop along with this hobby is the habit of doing some research before making a step that you will regret in the future. I made the mistake of taking someone for their word this past month. I was given information stating that there was to be a new import law that would effect all of us, all around the World.ū No coral was to be harvested from the Worlds ocean that was bigger then 4ū
After speaking with several people involved with corals I found out there was no truth to this statement and it was used strictly to enhance the sales from one Company. This really upsets me and is why I am taking the time to stress that you must make sure you know for sure that whoever you are working with knows what they are talking about.
I also found out that more rumors are being generated. I heard that all the news groups are saying that VHOžs will no longer be manufactured. THIS IS NOT TRUE! I was going to go out and buy every light I could find:) LeRoy called the different lighting companies and was told that long after I am gone there will still be VHO,s. It saddens me to see this happen in this hobby, why is their so much conflict and misinformation about something that is so important? My heart goes out to everyone who is beginning their first system. I was there once also. I lost things along the way but I leaned from each step I took. I also was and still am committed to sharing that information with everyone we can.
We are dedicated to sharing information through this newsletter. We want to inspire, encourage and guide people every step of the way so that they can and will continue to care for these delicate animals. This past month many people have sent us letters and I truly thank you for each and everyone of them! Your support is our foundation and it gives us the ability to continue to expand.
One of our up and coming projects will be a videos. We are thinking that we will share our propagating methods as well as tank setups and how to maintain them as a starting point for our videos. We would like your input in regards to this new idea so we can get a true feel for what you feel will be helpful as a tool for your success.
We will be sharing with you the different species that we have at the Foundation and sharing many of them with you when we propagate them. We will be building a data base that will describe the animal, its needs and the proper conditions for their care.
When caring for a reef system I find I learn something new everyday. It is amazing to take on the responsibility to nurture these animals. It reminds me of having our daughters who first crawled, then walked and now if given room can talk back:) You must look at this reef as a life cycle. Visit the ocean from which these animals came from. Understand the care they need to thrive.
One of the most important steps when starting your system is to encourage coralline algae growth. Look at where it grows in the ocean, it is not often under intense lighting. How often do we set our systems back because we are told to start with so much light. I start out with 40 watt lights, most of the time I start with man made rock and with the right supplements I have coralline algae spreading in a months time. Once you see the coralline algae spreading then increase your lights but do it gradually so as not to shock your system nor set it back by bleaching the very life you are trying to sustain. I have tried very hard to teach individuals how to have the same positive experience I have been fortunate enough to have. This is why you see pictures of my systems so that you can grow with my system. You can see what improvements or changes that I continue to make.
Placement of your corals is very important you have to be sure that the animal that it is close to will tolerate it and not sting it. I have learned that for the most part soft corals and sps corals can exist in the same system as long as you continue to care for their very different needs. The soft corals grow much faster than the sps corals so you need to propagate them more often. You will notice that most of my soft corals are more toward the bottom of my tank and the sps corals are closer to the light and stronger current. I put my hands in my tank everyday, make sure everyone is happy and move the power heads a different direction so that I make sure they get current from every direction.
I started with very small pieces and placed them where I wanted them and if the animal wasnžt happy it let me know it wanted to be somewhere else. So I would pop it off and attach it to a different rock until it was happy. LeRoy would come into my office and ask me what happened to some coral and I laughed and said I moved it. This happens all the time. I spend more time making sure all the animals are happy then I do anything else. Once I have the animal placed where it is doing best it grows right over the glue and unto the rock. As you can see no visible gluing yet I know there are big chunks holding everything together.
The next picture is of what LeRoy has named my old man tankū If you look closely you can see the rock that resembles a face of a man. This system was set up about four months ago and most of the rock you see was man made and the coralline algae has spread every where in this system. I now have increased my lighting to VHO.s and am gradually adding cuttings to this system. I put my first sps corals in it this past week. People have asked me if I have any fish in my systems because LeRoy forgets to take pictures of them. Not only do I have fish they all have names although I want only to encourage us to learn how to breed these in captivity and never support the collection of fish with poison. Fish truly add to the reef system and many can be a true benefit to the success of your system.
We use the six line wrasse to eat the planeria.
Tangs are algae eaters! and beautiful fish. I have blue damsels, clownfish, dotty backs, and gobbies. Next time I will ask LeRoy to take some pictures of this fish and the different janitor package that I use to maintain my systems.
I want to express from all of us at the Foundation our deepest, sincerest wish for a very Merry Christmas and a New Year full of fun and a new reef tank:)
There could never be an issue of a newsletter that I did not make a special effort to thank all of you for your support. So many of you have joined our growing family and contributed to our membership program. Without you we could never touch as many lives as you have enabled us to do. Please donžt forget to pat yourself on the back and wake up each morning knowing that you are making the World a better place and this New Year that is upon us IS GOING TO BE THE BEST YEAR!!
I have enjoyed all of the e-mails and have tired to answer all of your questions please keep them coming! We truly care about your systems as well as your progress. DON'T FORGET TO MARK YOUR NEW YEARS CALENDAR WITH THE UP AND COMING SEMINAR FEATURING JERRY HESLINGA AND ALBERT THIEL . IT IS SCHEDULED TO BE HELD IN BOISE IDAHO ON THE LAST WEEKEND IN MARCH , 1998. For more information about this please contact us by e-mail or call our office so we make sure you get the notice in the mail.
Thank you, all of you.
ASK SALLY JO
Some questions from the mail box
You must decide what kind of system you are going to commit to. Is it going to be a soft
I have come to realize through experience that the reef system must be treated as a
For your 110 gallon system six lights are perfect to start with. What you are trying to
With the Sea Chem supplements I use capfuls. I do not use the measuring methods
Thank you so much for your letter and I hope to hear from you again.
I suggest that you read through our posted newsletters in the past six issues I
Our next project will be a video that will be available to all who wish to
If we don't work together and share information over 70% of the Worlds
The other problem that has become a big issue is that a large percent of the corals taken
I will assist you and walk you through any propagation questions you have at
Thank you again for your letter and we hope to hear from you again.
I find that using low lighting in the very beginning is important to encourage
I also do not use a skimmer for the first two months to make sure the
As to what you are doing different than your friend it could be because of the rock,
We use the kalkwasser in our makeup water and it is important that you do
Please look at the pictures of my newest tanks you can do this I know you
It is great to hear from you again!
Your friend who misses North Dakota but am glad you are there in the cold
MAKE A PROFIT - EXPERIMENT - HAVE FUN - REPORT IN -Support our research
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