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COVER AND INDEX
LAST MONTHS ISSUE | HOME | MAY 2000 ISSUE

SALLY JO'S BROOD STOCK REEF FOR SOFT CORALS
BULLET PROOF REEF OUTLINE
ORDER REEF JANITORSTM AND GET FREE CORAL


Reef Aquarium Farming News
Online Newsletter for Reef Aquarium Propagation Research

GEOTHERMAL AQUACULTURE RESEARCH FOUNDATION

Hello, and welcome to the June, 2000 issue of our newsletter. We are working on the next page and we will be posting it soon. This issue we are writing about setting up brood stock aquariums. This is one of the most important things you need to do to get started reef farming. Sally Jo is going to show you how she has set up one of the most beautiful soft coral brood stock aquariums I have ever seen.
Thank you for visiting our newsletter!
LeRoy

GEOTHERMAL AQUACULTURE RESEARCH FOUNDATION

GEOTHERMAL AQUACULTURE RESEARCH FOUNDATION

GEOTHERMAL AQUACULTURE RESEARCH FOUNDATION

LeRoy has asked me to write about the success of my third office reef. This tank is a little over a year old and has it graced my office with beauty from day one. Going off the topic just a bit, we are proud to announce that we have a search engine on our site as well as a site map. If you wanted to follow this third setup of mine you can see it being set up from day one. We showed how we placed the rock and the equipment we used. I have added updates as time passed and animals develop new needs. We have reprinted the links in the next article on this page. This tank was set up last February 14 and was a gift from LeRoy. I had run out of room to stuff any more animals in my already packed reefs.

I started out with an Eco-Sand plenum, loads of GARF Grunge, all man made rock, two power heads, two 40 watt Blue Moon bulbs, a hand full of janitors, one timer and a heater. After the dust had settled that very next week, I added some of the hardier soft corals and mushrooms. As always LeRoy warned me to wait just a little longer, but I could not wait to decorate it and put my new ideas to work. To me a reef tank is not only enjoyable, it is rewarding to work with animals that give back so much. I also consider it a piece of art.

GEOTHERMAL AQUACULTURE RESEARCH FOUNDATION
GEOTHERMAL AQUACULTURE RESEARCH FOUNDATION Once you have developed your own little piece of art you need to learn how to maintain this little heaven on Earth and you must grow with its needs. I have decided that I am going to keep this tank a soft coral, mushroom, Xenia, clam and leather coral tank. These animals out grow the sps corals and I had so desperately needed room for them to grow. I think it was after about the first two weeks we added a Triton bulb to the lighting scheme and left the lights on for 12 hours a day. I like to keep tank temp at 78 degrees, salinity at 1.023, calcium at 500, pH 8.2, and the alkalinity at 4.2.

The one thing that I give my tanks the most of is love; no animal that enters the doors of GARF is neglected or mishandled. Some of the topics I will share in this article will address the maintenance program, the placement of animals, propagation. Garf has thoroughly documented this reef so we can put a stop to the comments that one can not sustain animals under 40 watt lighting using the simple methods that we share in the bullet proof reef system. Look closely at all the shared pictures to follow.

GEOTHERMAL AQUACULTURE RESEARCH FOUNDATION These animals are thriving, I have already begun propagating these guys, and this tank is absolutely trouble free. This is not the first bulletproof reef system at GARF we have over 30 bulletproof systems at GARF. All of the tanks in my office were set up with this method, however as my desire to care for more challenging corals became a reality, I added different lights, more power heads etc. The oldest tank is 4 and 1/2 years old (I look at this as one of my biggest accomplishments and never take it for granted) the middle one is 3 and 1/2 years old and the youngest of course is the one I am featuring today.

One issue I want to address is that in no way do I risk the health of any of my animals at the cost of saving money. We share the success of our systems because it works not because it is cheaper. We learn new things each day and find that our way is not the only way, but it works. We feel that each tank carries its own challenges, and no matter how closely you try and duplicate the ecosystem no two tanks in the World are alike.

Tons of research went into the first reef and I was so confused and so scared before I started that I did not know whom to believe. I hope that by GARF sharing the step by step success we will give you the courage to just simply start. One thing that I think I have brought to this hobby is that coral placement and choosing tank mates is vitally important. One must also remember the wild reef is our teacher and she is packed with bio-diversity second only to the rain forest.

My favorite size tank to work with is the 55-gallon. Long ago LeRoy tired to talk me into a bigger tank. He would tell me how much more I could fit in them. I remain committed to the 55-gallon size. It is so easy to work with this size system, and to meet the needs of the animals that reside in these tanks. Since I was already sold on the 55-gallon size that is of course what this featured tank is. I decided that this was going to be my soft coral tank. As my oldest tank has matured it has taken on the sps coral forest look, it is incredibly breath taking, but I miss the beauty of a soft coral tank.

GEOTHERMAL AQUACULTURE RESEARCH FOUNDATION
GEOTHERMAL AQUACULTURE RESEARCH FOUNDATION I believe making these decisions before you go on the journey of caring for a reef tank is very important. For one has to make certain they have the time to care for the animals. One has to be certain they have the money to maintain it.
GEOTHERMAL AQUACULTURE RESEARCH FOUNDATION

It is important to realize that this is a commitment to live animals. Corals can not reside in a little glass box left alone by themselves. They need our help to face the day, make it through the week, and plan for the years to come.
Another important point to make is that the animals continually grow and as they grow the need more room, supplements lighting and water movement. The fight for space in a little glass box is certainly a reality and one that continues to be my biggest challenge in my 4 1/2-year-old reef. I pay close attention to my animals. I watch for polyp extension, retracted polyps, and stinging tentacles. If an animal does not seem happy where I placed him or her I move them into less or more current or less or more lighting. I pay close attention to the next door neighbor who may not like this placement on the reef.

LeRoy has taught me that the best solution to pollution is dilution. Meaning that as far as I am concerned healthy water changes are a must. Corals, fish and other little creatures on the reef will live without noticeable problems for a while without a water change. I can guarantee that sooner or later problems will occur without a water change. One simply should not take this risk.

GEOTHERMAL AQUACULTURE RESEARCH FOUNDATION
GEOTHERMAL AQUACULTURE RESEARCH FOUNDATIONIf you look closely at all the pictures of my new one and one half year-old tank you will not find any algae. It has been an amazing accomplishment. I would have some diatom dusting but nothing the Reef Janitors and a good water change could not bring back into balance. I know this article will spark the debates that any topic on reef keeping brings forth.

To me it is important to keep an open mind. Do your research; ask to see pictures of the person's tank before taking them for their word. Much of what I have achieved I was told was impossible. I must stress the only reason why I take the time to share all my tanks with the rest of the hobby is because I care. I want to give people as much information as I possibly can so that captive reef keeping becomes the savior of the reef not the destroyer.

I share monthly sometimes-weekly pictures of all of my systems for a picture is worth a thousand words. What the site gives you is documented proof that the bulletproof reef system is honestly living up to its name. It is Bulletproof, it works, and not just for weeks, or months, it is now going on years. You can see over the years how each of my systems have developed. You can track coral placement and upgrades that I continually make to meet the needs of all the animals that reside within my care. LeRoy and friends laugh at my passion for these reefs, I have taken over 23,000 pictures since last Septmeber and just yesterday LeRoy said to me that just might have been the best picture of the reef you have taken to date:) It is important to document your reef, remember what works and what doesn't. Most importantly don't make to many changes at once and if you make any changes do it S L O W L Y.

In my little office I now have over 300 different types of coral and GARF has way over 400 different types of coral growing in the over 40 separate systems. Each day brings forth new questions, I am still seeking answers to some of my first asked. This is what makes this field so exciting, the horizon is vast, the challenges plenty, and no one has all the answers for many of the questions have yet to be asked. My reefs give me reason to wake up, reason to take on a new day, and reason to share.

GEOTHERMAL AQUACULTURE RESEARCH FOUNDATION
GEOTHERMAL AQUACULTURE RESEARCH FOUNDATION

I hope that by sharing the success of GARF's reefs we will take some of the mystery of reef keeping away and bring forth a new light. We have shown time and time again that to have a healthy, thriving reef system one does not have to take wild rock from the ocean, nor does your tank have to go through months of cycling. As with anything in this hobby it is your choice to make.

It is important to note that I set all of my three systems up the same way. We are now in the process of setting up six more so we can keep testing and sharing the results achieved. I start with a 55-gallon tank, no sump. I use an ECO Sand Plenum custom made for us by Richard Brown, owner of Corals and Clams. I use Ocean Pure salt keeping my salinity at 1.023 - 1.025.

I place a thick layer of a mixture of CaribSea Seaflor special grade reef sand and CaribSea Seaflor Aruba shells on the plenum. I then add a layer of GARF Grunge on the top of the substrate. I start the system by placing two Maxi Jet 1200 power heads on the uplift tubes that come with the Plenum. By using the Eco-Sand plenum as an undergravel filter for several months we allow the substrate to become completely populated with every type of filter organism. We slowly remove the power heads one at a time later.

The plenum becomes a Nitrate removing filter after we cap the short pipes that were used as uplift tubes. I wait about a day for all the dust to settle from the GARF grunge and begin to landscape my reef with our very own AragocreteTM rock.

I put the Reef Tables and Reef Caves on the bottom so only a few places on the substrate are covered with rock. I then place arches and ledges to finish it off. I like about 1 and 1/2 lbs. of rock per gallon of tank water. I then place two actinic 40-watt bulbs and a reflector right on top of the tank and wait. I think if we asked the question; what is the hardest thing to do when taking on the challenge of reef keeping? The answer that comes to my mind is waiting. I use the blue light because I have found that coralline likes the blue light and since I am beginning with all man made rock I do my best to encourage the grunge to seed the rock as rapidly as possible.

The next items that I place in the tank of course are my trusty Reef JanitorsTM. These guys are like the lawn mowers and window washers of the reef. They keep the diatoms down, clean my glass, turn over the sand and help me maintain a balance in my little glass boxes. Within the first week I begin to add the hardy corals to the tank. I use only propagated corals so the stress is limited and the animals do just fine. Within the second week I add an Actinic White 40 watt bulb to the light mixture and it's smooth sailing from there. I add the heater to the tank when I first add the corals. I keep the temperature of the tank at 78 degrees.

GEOTHERMAL AQUACULTURE RESEARCH FOUNDATION
I begin to add SeaChem supplements the very first week of set up. (You will find a listing of products and amounts I use in the Bullet Proof Reef System revisited, found at the end of this article. I place hardy fish in the tank after the tank is about three weeks old and have learned over the years that the meaner and cheaper the fish the better they do for me.
GEOTHERMAL AQUACULTURE RESEARCH FOUNDATIONAt about 4 to 6 months, I start to press LeRoy for a SeaClone skimmer. I wait this long for I do not want to skim out all the life in the live sand. However once you begin feeding the tank, have fish using the reef as a toilet, and propagation has begun you need to consider placing a skimmer on the tank. It is at this time that I start pushing LeRoy to build me a sump to place inside the stand to hide the skimmer. I really like the sump to place my makeup water in and supplements that I add twice each week.

As coralline begins to grow, I add one more Actinic White Bulb to the mixture of lighting. The tank in this article now has three forty-watt bulbs. LeRoy has found wonderful, inexpensive electronic ballast that lights three 40-watt bulbs very brightly. We use these three bulbs on many of our new coral propagation units.

I pay very close attention to the care and well being of my animals. I have found that many of the soft corals, Xenia, leathers, mushrooms, clams, Zoanthids, green stars and others will do great with this type of lighting. My newest bulletproof reef was set up Feb. 14, 1999. I replace the lights at six month - LeRoy uses them another year in the lab.

I clean the skimmer regularly, do my water changes, add the supplements, check the animals each day, and test the water every couple of months to make certain all parameters are right.

GEOTHERMAL AQUACULTURE RESEARCH FOUNDATION I have already decided that I am not going to upgrade this system to a sps coral tank. I am sticking with all the equipment listed. However, as the tank filled with corals I added two more power heads to add more water movement. It is important to watch the water movement because in this system corals grow a great deal and tend to block movement of water to other animals.

I have propagated several of the colonies from this tank already and I am certain it won't be long before LeRoy thinks of an excuse to set me up another reef. I do learn more from each experience. However, I must again remind myself if it's not broke don't fix it. Meaning I use the same principles with each new system and it simply works.

With my other two tanks, once the first one was a year old I was getting a burning desire to keep some of the small polyp stony corals; they are indeed the most colorful and delicate animals to add to a mature reef system. I try and tell people to wait 9 months to a year before adding sps corals. I suppose if one is using live rock or rock from an already set up system one could speed up the time line.

I find that the longer I wait and the more stable my tank is the better it is for these animals. The longer one waits the less stress and loss there will be. For growing colorful sps corals I swear by the VHO bulbs.

If you haven't already seen pictures of my oldest reef, which is at the 4 and 1/2 year old stage, please take a moment to do so. It has over 200 different types of coral in it, and it has over 100 of the most brightly colored and healthy sps corals I have seen. I upgrade my lighting slowly when first starting. I add two VHO's at a time until I have six over a 55-gallon system. I use three - Actinic o3 110 watt bulbs and three 50-50 110 watt bulbs, placing one blue one white, from front to back. I schedule the lighting upgrades so I only change two a month depending on the animals again. You do not want to shock them or bleach anything in the tank. I then change my lights religiously every six months to make certain the color spectrum of the bulb has not switched.

Once I have placed many of the sps corals in this tank, my concern has always been for their health. I went to several conferences and heard people talking about some of the disease that could plague a sps tank. It wasn't until I won an UV sterilizer that I actually had the courage to try it. Now I have them on all of our sps coral tanks. It only zaps the items that are pushed through the skimmer.

GEOTHERMAL AQUACULTURE RESEARCH FOUNDATION
I have had the UV sterilizer on my oldest tank over three years now. I have not seen anything bad happen and at the same time I am certain that when I pass a coral to some hobbyist it is in the best possible health. I also add more power heads in my oldest one I now have six placed in different places to make certain water movement is reaching all areas of the tank. My biggest challenge with this oldest tank is making certain all animals are happy, so propagation is a big thing each week.

THE NEXT SECTION GIVES YOU AN OUTLINE TO USE WHEN YOU PLAN YOUR NEW REEF.

Until next time
Sally Jo Headlee

GEOTHERMAL AQUACULTURE RESEARCH FOUNDATION

GEOTHERMAL AQUACULTURE RESEARCH FOUNDATION

Leroy Headlee

MANY TYPES OF MARINE INVERTEBRATES ARE BEING USED IN HOME AQUARIUMS AND IN MEDICAL RESEARCH. OUR MISSION IS TO MAKE ALL MARINE AQUARIUM KEEPING SELF SUSTAINING. PROPAGATION FOR A SELF SUSTAINING CORAL FARM WILL PROVIDE A CONTINUING SUPPLY OF BOTH HOBBY AND RESEARCH ANIMALS.


We developed a 55 gallon marine reef system, using one Visi-Jet protein skimmer,and two Maxi-Jet powerheads. The Aquarium Systems Company has a newer skimmer called the Sea-Clone Skimmer that we are now using. It is still inexpensive, but the new skimmer hangs on the back of the aquarium. This skimmer is so simple to use that it can be operated by anyone who wants a simple inexpensive invertebrate aquarium.

The research we are conducting here at the Geothermal Aquaculture Research Foundation in Boise, Idaho requires me to establish dozens of separate reef tanks.

These tanks have been tested both in our lab and in hundreds of our students homes. Use this as a great first reef aquarium to learn the fine art of reef keeping. Later you can expand the equipment as you learn more about the hobby. When an aquarist has the proper training many types of aquarium systems will support marine organisms. We have been keeping marine animals alive both commercially, and on a research basis since 1972. We have often maintained large quantities of delicate organisms, such as Chambered Nautilus, using all types of filtration. For the research we are conducting we needed to develop a "cookbook" type system that can be operated by people that have never kept marine aquariums.

We choose to use standard 55 gallon aquariums for this project because they are readily available. These tanks also allow us to use the standard 4 foot 40 watt lights. The list of materials used in these reefs is quite basic. Many of the products used are available at a well stocked aquarium store.


    Material list

    SOME TIMES I FORGET TO SAY THAT YOU MUST USE Ocean Pure BRAND SALT. I LEARNED THIS SO LONG AGO, AND SO MANY TIMES, THAT I THINK EVERY ONE JUST DOES IT. YOU WILL ALWAYS HAVE THE BEST RESULTS WITH Ocean Pure.
  • 1) 55 gallon show aquarium 48" long -

    we use a simple to set up plenum called Eco-Sand used as an undergravel filter for the start up period. - changed from original plans

  • 2) 1- Sea Clone Protein Skimmer - changed from original plans
  • 3) 2-Maxi-jet power heads (1200) - we add extra Power heads as the reef matures
  • 4) 1- heater
  • 5) 2-4 ft 40 watt "White Actinic" bulbs with end caps - changed from original plans the Blue moon and Triton bulbs a hard to locate
  • 6) 1-4 ft 40 watt "Actinic o3" bulb with end caps - changed from original plans
  • 7) ballast for 3 - 40 watt bulbs - LeRoy has some extra ones available for 39.00, he has to purchase a dozen at a time Email: leroy@garf;orgt
  • 8) 1-"Triton" enhancer light cover - polished aluminum reflector
  • 9) 40 lbs.CaribSea Seaflor special grade Aragonite gravel. You can use crushed coral gravel and Aruba shells - changed from original plans
  • 10) 60 to 75 lbs. AragocreteTM depending on type of reef you want
  • 11) 10 pounds Live Sand Activator - GARF GrungeTM - changed from original plans we often used just 5 pounds, BUT 10 POUNDS MAKE THE SET UP TIME MUCH SHORTER
  • 12) 50 Mixed snails and 32 MIXED hermit crabs
  • 13) Aquacultured live rock if you want it - we often use 30 pounds




I set up the 55 gallon reef tank by placing the plenum in the bottom of the reef and I cover it with gravel. I use the dry base rock to construct a loosely spaced stack that allows water to circulate. we now wait for several months before adding skimmer

THESE MAXIMA CLAMS ARE GROWING VERY WELL IN THIS REEF    -->

The "Maxi-jet" power heads are used to create a flow across the front of the tank. I do not fix one of the power heads in any one position because moving it around creates different currents in the tank. I have found that by turning the power head slightly each time I observe the tank I can create flow patterns that keep the detritris from clogging the live rocks.

I have observed polyps feeding on the debris from these "mini-storms". It does not require much movement from the power head to create a large change in current in the reef tank. This change in current is very easy to observe in the long tentacle type corals.

GEOTHERMAL AQUACULTURE RESEARCH FOUNDATION
When first establishing these reef tanks, after adding the base rock and the live sand activator, I do not feed the system at all for the first two months. Place the blue light on the tank and cover it with a Triton Enhancer. Leave the lights on for 14 hours a day. I have found that each tank goes thru a definite series of blooms. During the first month you can expect the entire tank to turn brown. This brown bloom is made up of diatoms. This is the time when to 50 mixed snails first earn their keep.

THESE ARE THE BEST THINGS TO ADD TO YOUR TANK EACH WEEK

  1. SeaChem Reef Plus
  2. SeaChem Reef Complete
  3. SeaChem Reef Calcium
THIS IS THE BEST WAY TO TREAT YOUR MAKE UP WATER
Only fresh water needs to be added to tank as water level goes down. The salt will stay in your tank.
When we first started the research we used Kalkwasser or Pickeling Lime in our fresh water.
We now use two SeaChem products that are powders that work better. We use Reef Buildertm and Reef Advantagetm.

Reef Advantage - we add one tablespoon to each gallon of fresh water

Repeat this for one week when you add fresh water.

Use SeaChem Reef Builder during the second week you add fresh water.
Change back to the SeaChem Reef builder again.

REPEAT

WATER CHANGES
Change 5 gallons each month to replace minerals . The more water you change the better the reef will do.

Many of the rare corals are offered to our members for 2 years before they are put on sale. We will soon have an E-mail list that will list the rarest color forms of sps corals and soft corals such as Xenia and Mushrooms.

JOIN THE RESEARCH FOUNDATION
You can support our research and learn more about reef aquariums and wetlands
1726 Merrill St.
Boise Idaho 83705

U.S.A.
Email: leroy@garf.org


WETLANDS SAVE THE WORLDS REEFS FROM ALGAE DESTRUCTION
LEARN ABOUT OUR WETLAND RESEARCH


TOP OF PAGE
COVER AND INDEX
LAST MONTHS ISSUE | HOME | MAY 2000 ISSUE

SALLY JO'S BROOD STOCK REEF FOR SOFT CORALS
BULLET PROOF REEF OUTLINE
ORDER REEF JANITORSTM AND GET FREE CORAL


Email:leroy@garf.org
Leroy's Old Home page (The one that Scott did not like)